A union in C programming is a user defined data type which may hold members of different sizes and type. Union uses a single memory location to hold more than one variables. However, only one of its members can be accessed at a time and all other members will contain garbage values.
The memory required to store a union variable is the memory required for the largest element of the union. We can declare the union in various ways. By taking the above example we can declare the above defined union as.
Employee employee. Normally when we declare the union it is allocated the memory that its biggest member can occupy. So here in our example employee will occupy the memory which a long type variable can occupy. The important use of a union is allowing access to a common location by different data types. For example hardware input and output access, bit-field and word sharing, or type punning.Functions in C - C Language Tutorial - Mr. Srinivas
A structure is a convenient tool for handling a group of logically related data items. Structure help to organize complex data is a more meaningful way. It is powerful concept that we may after need to use in our program Design. A structure is combination of different data types. Lets take the example of a book, if we cant to declare a book we will be thinking about the name, title, authors and publisher of the book and publishing year.
So to declare a book we need to have some complex data type which can deal with more than one data types. Now when ever we create an instance of Book it will have all the elements of the structure i. Name, Author, Publisher and Year. We can access all the members of a structure by adding a period after the name of the structure variable name and then the name of the field we want to access.
For example we want to change the Publish year from towe will do it as. Each element of the array itself is a structure see the following example shown below. Here we want to store data of 5 persons for this purpose, we would be required to use 5 different structure variables, from sample1 to sample 5. To have 5 separate variable will be inconvenient.
The structure type person is having 2 elements: Name an array of 25 characters and integer type variable age. Here, each element of sample is a separate structure of type person. We, then defined 2 variables into index and an array of 8 characters, info. Here, the first loop executes 5 times, with the value of index varying from 0 to 4.
For the first time this name you enter will go to sample [ 0 ]. The second for loop in responsible for printing the information stored in the array of structures. Structure with in a structure means nesting of structures.
Let us consider the following structure defined to store information about the salary of employees. This structure defines name, department, basic pay and 3 kinds of allowance. The salary structure contains a member named allowance which itself is a structure with 3 members. An inner-most member in a nested structure can be accessed by chaining all the concerned.Structures are used to represent a record, suppose you want to keep track of your books in a library. To define a structure, you must use the struct statement.
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The struct statement defines a new data type, with more than one member, for your program. The structure tag is optional and each member definition is a normal variable definition, such as int i; or float f; or any other valid variable definition. At the end of the structure's definition, before the final semicolon, you can specify one or more structure variables but it is optional. To access any member of a structure, we use the member access operator.Portfolio management python
The member access operator is coded as a period between the structure variable name and the structure member that we wish to access.
You would use struct keyword to define variables of structure type. You can pass a structure as a function argument in very similar way as you pass any other variable or pointer. Now, you can store the address of a structure variable in the above defined pointer variable. There is an easier way to define structs or you could "alias" types you create.
Now, you can use Books directly to define variables of Books type without using struct keyword. Previous Page. Next Page. Live Demo.
Previous Page Print Page.A structure element may be either complex or simple.
However, a structure may consist of an element that itself is complex i. Thus, an element of a structure may have be an array or a structure in itself. A structure consisting of such complex elements is called a complex structure. The structure emp has been defined having several elements including a structure address also. The element address of structure emp is itself a structure of type addr.
Tip - While defining such structures, just make sure that inner structures are defined before outer structure. The members of structures are accessed using dot operator. To access the city member of address structure which is an element of another structure worker, we shall write :. To initialize houseno member of address structure, element of worker structure, we can write as follows:.
The above program reads values into individual elements of nested structures worker. However, if you want to initialize a nested structure at the time of its declaration, this can be achieved as follows :.
The structure address of type addr which is embedded inside emp, is initialized separately by surrounding its values with braces. After the above statement, worker. Tools Calculator.
All Rights Reserved.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description Structure in C. By: ketan 87 month s ago. By: trizfarizzsha 92 month s ago. It is group of different types of data variables. Structure constitute a sort of super data type. The C keyword struct declares a c structure. Tag is an optional name of a structure type.
If we need to use a collection of different data type items it is not possible using an array. Slide 4: Structure is a method of packing data of different types. A structure is a convenient method of handling a group of related data items of different data types. The keyword struct declares a structure to holds the details of four fields namely title, author pages and price. These are members of the structures. Each member may belong to different or same data type. The structure we just declared is not a variable by itself but a template for the structure.
We can declare structure variables using the tag name any where in the program. Follow us on:. Go to Application. US Go Premium. PowerPoint Templates. Upload from Desktop Single File Upload.
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URL :. Related Presentations :. Add to Channel. The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: Category: Education. Like it 1. Dislike it 0. Added: February 24, Posting comment Post Reply Close. Edit Comment Close. Premium member.Like all other types, we can pass structures as arguments to a function.
In fact, we can pass, individual members, structure variables, a pointer to structures etc to the function. Similarly, functions can return either an individual member or structures variable or pointer to the structure. In line 18, a structure variable stu of type struct student is declared and initialized. The most important thing to note about this program is that stu. We can verify this fact by making the following amendments to our program.
In the earlier section, we have learned how to pass structure members as arguments to a function. If a structure contains two-three members then we can easily pass them to function but what if there are or more members? Certainly passing members is a tiresome and error-prone process. So in such cases instead of passing members individually, we can pass structure variable itself. The following program demonstrates how we can pass structure variable as an argument to the function.
Both structures reside in different memory locations and hence they are completely independent of each other. Although passing structure variable as an argument allows us to pass all the members of the structure to a function there are some downsides to this operation.
In linesa structure employee is declared with four members namely nameagedoj date of joining and designation. In line 19, a structure variable dev of type struct employee is declared and initialized.
Now ptr is pointing to the original structure, hence any changes made inside the function will affect the original structure. The downside of passing structure pointer to a function is that the function can modify the original structure. Recall that const keyword when applied to a variable makes it read-only.
Try commenting out code in line 32 and see it yourself. We have already seen how to pass an array of integers to a function. Similarly, we can pass an array of structures to a function. In linesa structure company is declared with four members namely nameceorevenuepps. In linesan array of structure called companies of type struct company is declared and initialized.
In linesa for loop is used to loops through the array of structure and prints the details of each company. Recall that name of the array i. In this case, 0th element is of type struct company. Just as we can return fundamental types and arrays, we can also return a structure from a function. To return a structure from a function we must specify the appropriate return type in the function definition and declaration.
Consider the following example:. This function accepts an argument of type struct player and returns an argument of type struct player. In linesa structure of type player is declared with 4 members namely nameheightweight and fees. In line 20, a structure variable p of type struct player is declared and initialized.
The function prints the details of the player and passes the control back to main function. The function decrements the fees of the player by using the statement. After printing the details of the function the control passes back to main function and the program terminates.Arrays allow to define type of variables that can hold several data items of the same kind.Google app engine github
Similarly structure is another user defined data type available in C that allows to combine data items of different kinds. Structures are used to represent a record. Suppose you want to keep track of your books in a library. To define a structure, you must use the struct statement.
The struct statement defines a new data type, with more than one member. The structure tag is optional and each member definition is a normal variable definition, such as int i; or float f; or any other valid variable definition. At the end of the structure's definition, before the final semicolon, you can specify one or more structure variables but it is optional.Curl openvpn
To access any member of a structure, we use the member access operator. The member access operator is coded as a period between the structure variable name and the structure member that we wish to access. You would use the keyword struct to define variables of structure type.Shaft fatigue calculation
You can pass a structure as a function argument in the same way as you pass any other variable or pointer. Now, you can store the address of a structure variable in the above defined pointer variable. Bit Fields allow the packing of data in a structure.
C++ Data Structures
This is especially useful when memory or data storage is at a premium. Reading external file formats -- non-standard file formats could be read in, e. C allows us to do this in a structure definition by putting :bit length after the variable. C automatically packs the above bit fields as compactly as possible, provided that the maximum length of the field is less than or equal to the integer word length of the computer.
Structures in C++
If this is not the case, then some compilers may allow memory overlap for the fields while others would store the next field in the next word. C - Structures Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Live Demo. Previous Page Print Page.If you wish, you can read through a seven-page course description. A page topic summary is also available: Algorithms and data structures—topic summary.
This is a collection of PowerPoint pptx slides "pptx" presenting a course in algorithms and data structures. Associated with many of the topics are a collection of notes "pdf". Some presentations may be associated with videos "V" and homework questions "Q"possibly with answers "A".
You will note that the section numbering in the notes is paralleled in the top left corner of the slides; thus, anyone watching the slides can follow along in the notes. Before we proceed with looking at data structures for storing linearly ordered data, we must take a diversion to look at trees.
At first glance, it appears as if trees are most appropriate for storing hierarchically ordered data; however, we will later see how trees can also be used to allow efficient storage of linearly ordered data, as well. A general tree is appropriate for storing hierarchical orders, where the relationship is between the parent and the children. There are many cases, however, where the tree data structure is more useful if there is a fixed number of identifiable children.
This topic looks at binary trees as well as perfect and complete binary trees, N-ary trees, the concept of balance, binomial trees, and left-child right-sibling binary trees a technique for storing general trees as binary trees.
This topic looks at storing linearly ordered data in search trees. A priority queue stores linearly ordered data based on the priority; however, by restricting the operations, those operations can be optimized.
Note that previously I used to teach linear probing and double hashing; however, it has been brought to my attention that quadratic hashing is better—especially when we consider the effects of caching and the additional cost of cache misses.
Introduction and review 1. Algorithm analysis 2. Lists, stacks, and queues 3. Trees and hierarchical orders Before we proceed with looking at data structures for storing linearly ordered data, we must take a diversion to look at trees. Ordered trees A general tree is appropriate for storing hierarchical orders, where the relationship is between the parent and the children. Search trees This topic looks at storing linearly ordered data in search trees. Priority queues A priority queue stores linearly ordered data based on the priority; however, by restricting the operations, those operations can be optimized.
Sorting algorithms 8. Hash functions and hash tables Note that previously I used to teach linear probing and double hashing; however, it has been brought to my attention that quadratic hashing is better—especially when we consider the effects of caching and the additional cost of cache misses.
Equivalence relations and disjoint sets Graph algorithms Algorithm design Theory of computation
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